The origins of SWOT analysis can be traced back to the 1960s when Albert Humphrey of the ‘Stanford Research Institute’ started investigating why it was that corporate planning so often fell short of its marks. His research led to the creation of SWOT analysis, which remains a tool in strategic planning to this day, successfully enduring because of how effectively it offers an approach to examining both internal and external factors impacting business success. Going forward today, we will take a deep dive into SWOT analysis with the aim of providing entrepreneurs the knowledge needed to use this popular technique effectively!

What is SWOT Analysis, then?

SWOT analysis, when utilised to its full potential, serves as a planning tool that businesses can use to pinpoint and assess internal strengths and weaknesses, as well as external opportunities and threats. The significance of SWOT analysis for businesses lies in its ability to provide insights into their standing and future prospects, and through an evaluation of both the said internal and external factors, organisations can:

  • Identify their areas of strength to build upon.
  • Recognise any weaknesses that need improvement.
  • Discover the opportunities for growth and innovation.
  • Anticipate any potential threats and develop strategies to mitigate them.

By adopting the SWOT analysis perspective businesses can go on to align their resources and capabilities much more effectively to match market dynamics and their competitors. The end goal then is to improve both strategic planning and overall performance, ideally leading to business growth.

The 4 Components of SWOT

We’ve touched on the basics now, and with each segment of our acronym in mind – Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats, let’s explore in depth the things we should be considering when building our analysis.


The strengths of an analysis are recognised as internal attributes that are working to give a business its competitive advantage and will typically include, but not be limited to, the following:

  • Brand reputation: A well-known and respected brand can attract customers and create loyalty.
  • Financial stability: Strong financial health allows for investment into new opportunities and resilience against economic downturns.
  • Skilled workforce: Talented and experienced employees contribute to higher productivity and innovation.
  • Efficient processes: Streamlined operations and effective management can reduce costs and improve service quality.


When considering weaknesses, business owners and leaders need to be open and honest, as transparency will help highlight the most important internal factors that might be hindering a company – common company weaknesses include:

  • Poor location: Being situated in a less accessible area can limit customer reach and increase logistical costs.
  • Outdated technology: Relying on old systems can decrease efficiency and make it harder to compete with technologically advanced rivals.
  • High employee turnover: Frequent staff changes can disrupt operations and increase recruitment and training costs.
  • Weak marketing: Ineffective marketing strategies can result in low brand awareness and missed sales opportunities.


A compilation of external factors that a business has the potential to capitalise upon for growth will help create a clear picture of its aims. Some of the most common opportunities we hear companies pursuing are:

  • Market growth: Expanding markets provide chances to increase sales and market share.
  • Technological advancements: New technologies can improve efficiency, reduce costs, and open up new product or service offerings.
  • Regulatory changes: Favourable changes in laws or regulations can create new business opportunities or reduce operational constraints.
  • Partnerships: Collaborating with other companies can enhance capabilities and access new markets.


Threats are another external factor and are self-explanatory, involving anything that could cause trouble for the business. These might include things that are outside a business’ control, but hopefully are things that can be worked on for improvement:

  • Economic downturns: Recessions or slow economic growth can reduce consumer spending and negatively impact sales, resulting in a slower cash flow.
  • Increased competition: New or stronger competitors can erode market share and pressure profit margins.
  • Regulatory challenges: Unfavourable changes in regulations can increase compliance costs or restrict business operations.
  • Supply chain disruptions: Issues such as supplier failures or geopolitical tensions can affect the availability and cost of raw materials.

Always be as thorough as possible when aggregating the components of your SWOT analysis, and as mentioned, be realistic about things as turning a blind eye to problems will always make them worse down the road. Be open, and develop a strategy that can leverage strengths whilst addressing weaknesses with the aim of achieving long-term success.

Steps to Building a SWOT Analysis

First, businesses need to develop what is referred to as a ‘SWOT Matrix’ – it consists of a grid format which organises all the information regarding your SWOT analysis into four broken-down quadrants. This visual representation is intended to help analyse the data by dedicating each quadrant to a metric of SWOT:

  • Strengths: Top left quadrant
  • Weaknesses: Top right quadrant
  • Opportunities: Bottom left quadrant
  • Threats: Bottom right quadrant

This simple yet proven structure will allow businesses to systematically approach the evaluation of each category, ideally facilitating a strategic plan that will lead to improved decision-making.

Gather the Right Participants:

Be sure to have a group of participants for a thorough SWOT analysis, as the larger the pool of people you have, the better the scope of ideas you can get about your business’s problems, and it is less likely that problems will be ignored or missed. This group should ideally include:

  • Leadership team for strategic insights.
  • Employees from different levels and functions for a broad perspective.
  • Stakeholders who can offer valuable external viewpoints.

Having the right mix of participants will ideally ensure all aspects of the business are covered in the analysis, capturing viewpoints that lead to more precise and actionable insights.

Listing Strengths:

It is easy to suggest what you think the strengths of your business are, and if you are one of its founders, you will likely have a bias towards this subject, so always try to look at strengths through the perspective of a competitor as well as a leader. To pinpoint your organisation’s strengths, ask the group these questions and any of your own that you think might be relevant:

  • What are our strongest assets?
  • What do we do better than our competitors?
  • What unique resources do we possess?
  • What are our most successful products or services?
  • How do our customers perceive us positively?

Strengths could encompass factors like brand reputation and financial stability, or skilled employees and streamlined processes. If you are reliant on it, cutting edge technology might be another example of what separates you from competitors.

Listing Weaknesses:

When looking to uncover weaknesses, I will emphasise again the importance of being honest and realistic. However, this should not lead to negativity. Weaknesses are apparent in any company, and by identifying them, you can work to turn them into strengths. It might be a touchy part of the analysis, but leaders can consider some of the following questions to start with:

  • Where do we need improvement?
  • What resources are we lacking?
  • What areas do our competitors excel in that we don’t?
  • What internal processes need enhancement?
  • What customer complaints do we frequently encounter?

You can keep questions general without pointing the blame at any individual or department, and the more thorough the exploration, the better off a business will be in the long term. Many companies’ weaknesses typically stem from things like outdated technology, high staff turnover, limited market penetration or inadequate financial management.

Identifying Opportunities:

Identifying opportunities will require due diligence on the business part in an effort to fully explore factors that could be advantageous, whether it be in competitive markets or ways that can provide for the company through expansion, maintenance, or upgrades:

  • What market trends could we take advantage of?
  • Are there emerging technologies we could adopt?
  • Are there potential partnerships we could form?
  • What new customer needs can we meet?
  • Are there regulatory changes that favour our business?

The more potential opportunities that can be identified, the more strategic plans for success can be drawn up, and it can be generally morale boosting to know that there are many avenues to move forward on that can help your business thrive.

Identifying Threats:

Identifying threats involves pinpointing external factors that could have a negative impact on the business. Questions to think about might include:

  • What economic trends could harm our business?
  • Are there new competitors entering our market?
  • Are there potential changes in regulations that could affect us?
  • What are the risks in our supply chain?
  • How might shifts in consumer behaviour impact us?

By following these steps, organisations can approach and then effectively develop a comprehensive SWOT analysis that aims to shed light on critical areas requiring strategic attention. When worked on correctly, this systematic procedure should prove useful for identifying both external and internal areas to focus on.

Integrating SWOT with Strategic Planning

Once your analysis is complete and you feel like it is thorough enough, business owners can move on to start translating their analysis into useful, actionable strategies – let’s move on ourselves now and look at some things that can be done to achieve this:

  • Leverage Your Strengths: Aim to capitalise on opportunities and counter threats. For example, if your brand has a reputation or is starting to build one, use it to your advantage and push to enter new markets or fend off emerging competitors.
  • Address Weaknesses: Aim to devise strategies that will either eliminate your weaknesses or turn them into strengths. An example might be if high employee turnover has been a concern a business could focus on boosting employee engagement and retention by figuring out ways to make the work more enticing or rewarding.
  • Exploit Opportunities: Seize opportunities that complement your strengths and strategic objectives, for instance if market expansion opportunities are on the horizon start crafting a thorough plan for venturing into these new markets.
  • Mitigate Threats: It is recognised as good business practice to prepare contingency measures to tackle threats unseen future threats. An example might be a case of downturns posing a risk but being mitigated by a financial cushion or having a diversified product range to minimise exposure.

Aligning with Objectives

It is important when you have spent the time producing your SWOT analysis to ensure any insights you gather are then aligned properly with the overall aims of your business. This will typically include:

  • Establishing Clear Goals: Outline measurable, attainable, relevant and time bound (SMART) goals based on your SWOT analysis.
  • Integration with Strategic Plans: Blend SWOT discoveries into your strategic planning documents to ensure that all plans and projects are in line with the identified strengths and weaknesses as well as the opportunities and threats.
  • Prioritising Projects: Concentrate on projects that directly contribute to your business goals and capitalise on your strengths while addressing weaknesses and minimising threats.

Monitoring Progress

When looking to monitor the effectiveness of your strategies, you can establish metrics that will track the progress derived from your SWOT analysis. This will typically include the following:

  • Defining Key Performance Indicators (KPIs): Choose KPIs that will align with the strategies you have devised and the goals identified in your SWOT analysis.
  • Regular Review Meetings: Plan recurring meetings to assess all of your progress based on these metrics and make adjustments to the strategies.
  • Reporting Tools: Employ tools, like dashboards and reports, to visually represent progress and pinpoint areas that require attention.

Biases and Subjectivity

One of the most standard challenges in conducting SWOT analysis, and a point we have touched on briefly before, is the potential impact of biases and personal opinions, blurring the accuracy of your analysis. This normally occurs when individuals have strong beliefs or ignorance which may influence the analysis to support specific outcomes, and not normally for the best! This can result in inaccurate or unrealistic evaluations and, ultimately, suboptimal strategic choices.

  • Tips for Prevention:
    • Diverse Participation: Again, going back to the importance of Including a wide range of participants from different departments and levels within an organisation to gather varied perspectives, this is really your best bet to avoid strong individual biases from taking hold of an analysis.
    • Fact-Based Analysis: Ground the SWOT analysis in plenty of data and concrete information rather than the subjective viewpoints of individuals who may not want to face the realities of a situation.
    • Facilitated Sessions: Businesses may find it helpful to employ a neutral or third-party moderator who can facilitate discussions and ensure that all perspectives are given equal consideration.

Last Thoughts

Hopefully we have covered enough ground today to demonstrate that by incorporating SWOT analysis into your planning process you’ll be able to obtain valuable insights that can steer your business towards enduring success, from analysing company accounts to executing new strategies, so what are you waiting for? Start your SWOT analysis today!

Improve Small Business Financial Intelligence with Pulse

For those seeking a user-friendly fintech solution designed for SMEs to improve their small business financial intelligence, entrepreneurs and their financial advisors should consider signing up for Pulse! Our fintech tool integrates with Open Accounting and Open Banking platforms, and through our intuitive dashboard and analysis features, aggregates, then breaks down all your key financial metrics, displaying them through easy-to-understand mediums.